Molecule Name: Nelarabine
Active Ingredient: nelarabine
Dosage Form: 250mg/50ml
Manufacturer Name:

Nelarabine is a chemotherapeutic drug used to treat T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. Patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) or T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma are treated with the cancer drug Nelarabine (T-LBL). These cancers are characterized by an excessive proliferation of T lymphoblasts, an immature kind of white blood cell. The aberrant cells are primarily found in the lymphatic system in T-LBL and the blood and bone marrow in T-ALL (lymph nodes or thymus gland). When cancer has not responded to at least two different forms of chemotherapy or has ceased responding, Nelarabine is employed.  The active ingredient is nelarabine.

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How Darzalex faspro can benefit people?

Darzalex or Darzalex Faspro has been studied in both newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma patients. Darzalex/Darzalex Faspro studies in myeloma patients have included the mentioned patient populations:

  • Patients who have previously received multiple therapies (heavily pre-treated)
  • Patients with impaired renal function (renal impairment)
  • Patients who are not candidates for stem cell transplantation
  • Patients who had failed both PIs and IMiDs
  • Patients who have mildly impaired liver function (mild hepatic impairment)

Mechanism of Working

In myeloma cells, the drug Darzalex Faspro interacts to the protein CD38 (this protein is also found on other cells, such as red blood cells). It is believed to reduce the growth of myeloma cells in a number of ways, including by assisting the immune system in finding and eliminating myeloma cells.

A monoclonal antibody called Darzalex can be given to patients in one of two ways: either as an intravenous (IV) infusion or as a subcutaneous (SC) injection (that is, under the skin).

What could be the possible side effects of Darzalex Faspro?

When a patient has an adverse reaction to an infusion, their Darzalex Faspro infusion is stopped, and their symptoms are handled. The infusion may be restarted at a slower rate after the symptoms go away. Those who have several severe responses or a life-threatening infusion reaction stop using Darzalex.

Low neutrophil, platelet, lymphocyte, red blood cell, and haemoglobin counts are the most frequent significant adverse effects. Other issues include:

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Nelarabine is not recommended for pregnant women. It may harm a baby if conceived before, during or soon after treatment. 

 Once the vial is opened, Nelarabine is stable for up to 8 hours at up to 30°C.

In two major studies including patients with T-ALL and T-LBL whose cancer had ceased responding to one or more prior cancer treatments, Nelarabine was proven to be successful.

Only with a prescription may one receive Nelarabine, which is administered by drip into a vein under the care of a medical professional with experience administering this kind of medication. 

The patient’s age and body surface area (determined using the patient’s height and weight) determine the dose and frequency of infusions. 

The beginning dose for adults and teenagers 16 years of age and older is 1,500 mg per square meter of body surface area, administered over two hours on days one, three, and five, and repeated every 21 days. 

Children under the age of 16 are given a dose of 650 mg per square meter over the course of five consecutive days, administered over an hour each day for 21 days in a row. Patients between the ages of 16 and 21 may also use this programme. If a patient experiences severe side effects that impact the brain or neurological system, treatment should be halted. If more side effects develop, treatment might be postponed. 

Individuals on Nelarabine should have their blood cell counts checked often for changes and should drink enough fluids if they have a history of tumor lysis syndrome (a complication due to the breakdown of cancer cells).

Adults who take Nelarabine frequently experience the following side effects: 

  • Infection
  •  Neutropenia
  •  thrombocytopenia
  • anemia
  • somnolence (drowsiness)
  •  hypoaesthesia, paraesthesia
  • dizziness
  • headache
  • dyspnea 
  • Other side effects include cough, diarrhea, vomiting, constipation and nausea.